Pests and diseases can have an adverse impact on agriculture. Pest may include various vertebrates and invertebrates and diseases include micro-organisms, disease agents (bacteria, fungi and viruses), infectious agents, parasites and genetic disorders. Insect-pests of crop plants are the real candidates that will be most affected by global climate change. Complex physiological effects exerted by the increasing temperature and CO2 may affect profoundly, the interactions between crop plants and insect-pest



Insect management strategies need to be changed in accordance with the projected changes (with shift in cultivation areas of their host crops) in pest incidence and extent of crop losses in view of the changing climate.

Certain effective cultural pest management practices may need to be revised as the new set of pests and diseases are expected to cause the menace. The forewarning models for predicting insect arrivaV infestations based on earlier climate profiles need to be revised in accordance with location specific changes in climate in order to provide precise and accurate forecast of the pest incidence.

There is an urgent need to sensitize the farmers, extension workers and other stakeholders involved in supply chain management about the climate change associated changes in incidence of pests and diseases of major crops in their regions and the different adaptation strategies to cope with the situation. This can be achieved through organization of awareness campaigns, training and capacity-building programmes, development of learning material and support guides for different risk scenarios of pest, etc.

The decision making ability and adaptive capacity of farmers can be enhanced through the integration of a farmers' participatory and multidisciplinary research approach involving research and developmental organizations and farmers as equal partners.

Conservation of natural resources can be promoted among the farmers to adopt environmental conserving pest controlling activities such as organic farming, bio-control, integrated pest management, habitat conservation for important insect pollinators, etc. Strategies for adaptation and coping could benefit from combining scientific and indigenous technical knowledge (ITK), especially in developing countries where technology is least developed.

ITK (indigenous technical knowledge) is helpful to adapt the adverse effects of changing climate. e.g. application of natural mulches helps in suppression of harmful pests and diseases besides moderating soil temperatures and conservation of soil moisture.